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Viajantes Anglófonos em Portugal - Séculos XVIII e XIX

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BAXTER, William Edward
The Tagus and the Tiber;

or, Notes of Travel in Portugal, Spain, and Italy, in 1850-1
Inglaterra, 1852
Londres
Língua: Inglês

 Outras edições:  Londres, 1837, J. Murray
Londres, 1848, John Murray
Londres, 1861, John Murray

 Edição 
Volume:In two volumes
Endereço do editor:New Burlington Street
Local de edição:Londres
Nome do editor:Richard Bentley
Notas do editor:Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty
 Notas e informações 
 Referência 
Cota:H.G. 11374 P. / H.G. 11375 P.
 Autor 
Autor:BAXTER, William Edward
Datas autor:1825-1890

 Notas gerais 

Embora a obra conste de 2 volumes, a numeração das páginas apresentada neste trabalho refere-se apenas ao vol. I.


DIVISÃO DA OBRA

- Contents of the first volume -

* Chapter I
Induence and Civilizing Effects of Steam Navigation - Southampton on the Seventeenth of the Month - Passengers on Board the "Pacha" - A travelling Republic - The Bay of Biscay - A Morning at Vigo - Bar of the Douro - Swell at the Mouth of the Tagus - Moonlight in Southern Climates - Arrival at Lisbon - Hotels in the Portuguese Capital - The Custom-houses ........................................................................ p.1

* Chapter II
Situation and Buildings of Lisbon - The Aqueduct - Belem - Portuguese Soldiery - Mementos of the Earthquake - Noises in the Streets - State Procession to the Church of Santa Vicente - The Queen - A Villa in the Country - Notes on the Nation and its Rulers - Want of Roads - Attachment of the Lower Classes to Don Miguel - Political Parties - Costa Cabral - Abolition of the Conventual Orders - Prospects of Portugal .......................................................................................................................................... p. 20

* Chapter III
Departure for Torres Vedras - Singular mode of Conveyance - A High-road in Portugal - Notes on the Appearance of the Country – Travelling at Night – The Pole Star – Sudden Stoppage – The Village of Torres Vedras – Scene in the Inn – The Lines – Vineyards in the Vicinity – Wines and the Vintage – A Grape Warehouse – Mafra – The Palace – Its Desolation – Arrival at Cintra – Beauty of its Situation – The Cork Convent – The Cliffs – Colhares – Montserrat – The La Pena Convent – View from the Summit of the Rock – Donkey–rides – Dress of the Peasantry – Their Politeness – Return to Lisbon – The Gallegos – Cacilhas and Jackass Bay – Panorama of the City – English Sailors – The 'Iberia' – Arrival at Cadiz ................................................................................................................................................... p. 41

* Chapter IV
Cadiz, its Situation and Appearance – The beautiful Gaditanas – The Alameda at Sunset – Puerto Santa Maria – Banks of the Guadalete – Xerez de la Frontera – The “Bodegas”, or Wine Magazines – Manufacture of Sherry – Demand for it exceeds the Supply – Description of the Country between Xerez and San Lucar – Intense Heat – Steamer on the Guadalquiver – The Mirage – Agriculture on the banks of the River – Herds of Cattle – Approach to Seville – The Fonda de la Reyna – The Cathedral – Magnificence of the Interior – The Organ – Power of Music – Picture of the Guardian Angel – The Alcazar, or ancient Palace of the Moorish Kings – Spanish Art – Murillo’s Paintings – His “Moses Striking the Rock”, and “St. Thomas Relieving Beggars” – Remarks on his Genius ........................................ p. 68

* Chapter V
The Records of Columbus at Seville – The University – The Giralda Tower – Present state of the City – Return to Cadiz – The 'Mercurio' – Trafalgar – The Pillars of Hercules – Phosphorescent Waves – First sight of Gibraltar – San Roque – The Free Church of Scotland – Refusal of a Site for a Presbyterian Place of Worship by the Authorities of the Rock – British Colonial Governors and their Policy – Notes on Gibraltar – The Town – Batteries and Villas – An instance of French Manners – Observations on the Propriety of England retaining the Fortress – Its Position – Military Strength and Influence in Southern Europe – The Spanish Tariff, not the Guns of Gibraltar, the cause of the Contraband Trade ........... p. 95

* Chapter VI
Quarantine Laws – Spanish Steamers – Algeziras – The 'Barcino' – Official Indolence – Arrival at Malaga – Situation of the Town – The Manufactories – Observations on the Commercial Policy of Spain – Effects of the Tariff – Constitutional Government – Want of Principle among the Politicians at Madrid – Federalism – Prospects of the Country – Raisin Trade of Malaga – Road to Granada – Journey in “Calesas” – Ascent of the Sierra – Dreary Nature of the Scenery – Robbers on this Highway – Loja – Historical Reminiscences connected with the Route – Parador de los Angeles – The Mountains of the Province ............................................................................................................................................ p. 124

* Chapter VII
Leave Loja – The Vega of Granada – Distant view of the City – Santa Fé – Incident of the Siege – Arrival at the Fonda de la Amistad – A Spanish Post-office – First Visit to the Alhambra – Gate of the Pomegranates – The Torre de la Vela – Splendour of the Prospect – The Appearance of the Vega – Surrender of the City – The Alberca – The Court of the Lions – Hall of the Abencerrages – Lindaraxa’s Garden – Hall of the Ambassadors – Fairy Character of the Palace – The Generalife – Notes on Granada – Junction of the Xenil and the Darro – The Cartuja Convent – The Albaycin – Gipsy Caverns in the Rocks – The Vermilion Towers – Present state of the Alhambra – Inscriptions on the Walls – Legend of the Abencerrages – The Hall of Justice – Washington Irving – View from the Tower of Comares – Employments of the People – Hopes of the Moors – Probable Fate of the Alhambra – The Religion of Mahomet, a Meteor, which must soon pass away ........................................................................... p. 148

* Chapter VIII
Granada by Moonlight – Spanish Diligences – Our Fellow-travellers – Continental Manners – Degeneracy of the Higher Classes – Example of the Court – Necessity for a Moral Reform – View of the Sierra Nevada – Badness of the Road – Inns in Spain – Detention during the Night – Bailen – The Olive Trees – Further Delay at La Carolina – Gorge of Despeña-perros – Enter La Mancha – Misery of the People – Valdepenas – The Windmills – Don Quixote – Erroneous Ideas prevalent regarding the Scenery of the Peninsula – Absence of Trees and Shrubs – Nakedness of the Fields – Inhabitants of La Guardia – Their extreme Wretchedness – Spanish Beggars – Fourth Accident to our Conveyance – Aranjuez – Arrival at Madrid – Douaniers – The Puerto del Sol ...................................................................................... p. 182

* Chapter IX
Situation of Madrid – Its Buildings and Shops – Province of Catalonia – The Chapel Royal – Officiating Priests – Scene on the Prado – The Queen – Her Personal Appearance – Roman Catholicism in Spain – Irreligion in the Country – Progress from Superstition to Infidelity – Power of the Papacy – Contrast between Protestant and Roman Catholic Nations ............................................................................ p. 205

* Chapter X
Agriculture in Spain – Want of Roads – The Armoury at Madrid – The Museum, or Gallery of Paintings – Pictures by Murillo – Titian’s “Adoration of the Kings” – Raffaelle’s “Lo Spasimo della Sicilia” and “La Perla” – Notes on Rembrandt and Rubens – Sentimental Admiration of the Flemish School – Sir Joshua Reynolds on “Instantaneous Raptures” – Vulgarity of Rubens’ Works - His Portrait of Sir Thomas More – The Street of Alcala on Mondays – Visit to a Bull-fight – Description of the Exhibition – My Sensations while witnessing it – Remarks on the Amusement – Its increasing Popularity – Departure for the Escurial – The Palace – Village and Church on the Guadarama Mountains – Return to the Capital ............... p. 224

* Chapter XI
Leave Madrid – Passports – Passengers in the Diligence – The loquacious Frenchman – Spurs of the Guadaramas – Somosierra – The Tagus and the Douro – Aranda – Burgos – The Cathedral – “Cofre del Cid” – Traffic on the Great Northern Road – The Porta Augusta – Valley of the Ebro – Beautiful Women of Xiranda – The Basque Provinces – The Feelings of their Inhabitants toward the present Dynasty – Abolition of the National “Fueros” – Battle of Vittoria – Collision at Night – Ascent of the Pyrenees – Team of Oxen – Tolosa – Resemblance of the Country to Switzerland – View of the Sea at St. Sebastian – Irun – Fuenterrabia – Cross the Bidassoa – French Custom-house – Scenery near St. Jean de Luz – Bayonne – Banks of the Adour – Snowy Peaks of the Pyrenees – Journey to Bordeaux – French Manners – Arrival at Poictiers ........................................................................................................... p. 256

* Chapter XII
The Month of May – Lausanne and the Lake of Geneva – Agriculture of the Canton de Vaud – Priesteraft in the Vallais – Sion-Miraculous Escape of our Diligence and its Passengers – Awful Scene – Journey in Chars-à-bane – Reach Brieg – Ascent of the Simplon – The Road – The Glaciers – The Galleries – Visit to the Hospice – Dreary Prospect – Grandeur of the Mountains – Sardinian Frontier – View from the Heights above Domo d’Ossola – The Lago Maggiore – Lovely Scenery – The Breezes of
Italy – Arona – Sesto Calende – An Austrian Custom-house Examination – Arrival at Milan ........... p. 278

- Contents of the second volume -

* Chapter I
The Duomo of Milan - St. Ambrose - The Corso in 1844 and in 1851 - Hatred of the People to the Austrians - Treatment of the Soldiers by the Civilians - Politeness of the Italians - Leave for Bologna - The Lombards - Excessive Heat - Lodi - Parmesan Cheese - Passports - Cross the Po - Piacenza - Frontier of Modena - Reggio - Capital of the Duchy - Escort of Dragoons - The Legations - Insecurity of Travelling - The Quarterly Review - Bologna - Its Streets and Leaning Tower - Ascent of the Apennines - Beggars - Scenery on the Summit - Tuscan Custom-house - View of Florence - German Military Government - Appearance, Buildings, and Historical Recollections of the Etrurian Athens ... p. 11

* Chapter II
The English in Florence - The Pitti Palace - Its Gallery of Paintings - Guido's "Cleopatra" - Raffaelle's "Leo the Tenth" and "Madonna della Segiola" - Canova's "Venus" - The Boboli Gardens - Galileo's Chamber - The Church of Santa Croce – The Casine – Austrian Horsemanship – Campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore – The Gonfaloniere of Florence – The Laurentian Library – The Loggia – Tower of the Ducal Palace – The Gallery – The Venus de Medici – Americans at the Table d’Hôte – Manners of our Transatlantic Brethren .............................................................................................................................................. p. 34

* Chapter III
Feast of St. Ranieri at Pisa – Crowd on the Railway – Agriculture of Tuscany – Sienna – Our Fellow-traveller – The Despotisms of Europe weakening Roman Catholicism – Pass of Radicofani – Volsinium – Montefiascone – Viterbo – Lake of Vico – Solemn Feelings on approaching Rome – Dreariness of the Vicinity – First View of the Eternal City – Different Points from which to enjoy the Prospect of Rome – Bustling Streets – English Handbills – Porta del Popolo – The Pincian Hill – The Janiculum – Fountains – Summit of St. Peter’s – Back Streets of the modern Town – Drainage – Fort St. Angelo – Temple of Vesta – Ruins and Gardens on the Aventine – Palatin and Cœlian Hills – Belt of Pleasure Grounds round the City – The Campagna – Its utter Desolation ................................................................................... p. 56

* Chapter IV
NOTES ON THE RUINS OF ROME

Inundations of the Tiber – Who destroyed the Monuments of ancient Rome? – Rienzi, last of the Tribunes – The City in the Fifteenth Century – Climate of Central Italy - The Pantheon – Columns of Marcus Aurelius and Trajan – Baths of Titus, of Diocletian, and of Caracalla – The Appian Way – Valley of Egeria – Tomb of Cecilia Metella – The Catacombs – Road to Tivoli – Mons Sacer – The Capitol and Tarpeian Rock – The Forum Romanum – Temple of Jupiter Tonans – Arch of Septimius Severus – The Mamertine Prison – The Coliseum – Arches of Constantine and Titus – The Palatine Mount – Its Ruins and Gardens .............................................................................................................................................................. p. 82

* Chapter V
Churches of Rome – Basilics of St. Paul, Santa Croce, and Santa Maria Maggiore – Piazza St. Pietro – First Impressions of St. Peter’s – Its colossal Dome – Statuary in the Interior – Canova’s Monument to Clement XIII – Feast of Corpus Domini – Procession of Ecclesiastics – The Monks, Prelates, and Cardinals – Pio Nono – General Gemeau – The Pope’s Benediction from the High Altar of St. Peter’s – English Spectators – Feelings produced by the Ceremony – Procession of the Holy Sacrament in the Square of the Lateran – The Scala Santa – Festival of St. John the Baptist in the Lateran Church – Arrival of the Pope – The Swiss Guards – Pio Nono on his Pontifical Throne – Homage of the Cardinals – The Cistine Chapel – Michael Angelo’s “Last Judgment” – The Vatican Palace – Raffaelle’s “Loggie” – Genius of that Painter – Pompey’s Statue in the Spada Palace – St. Pietro in Vincoli – Michael Angelo’s “Moses” – Gallery on the Capitol – Domenichino’s “Cumæan Sybil” – “The Bronze Wolf” – “The Dying Gladiator” – Statuary in the Vatican – The “Laocoon” and “Apollo Belvidere” – Guercino’s Pictures – The Three “Ecce Homos” in the Corsini Palace – “The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian” – Guido’s “Beatrice Cenci” – His Fresco of “Aurora” in the Pavilion of the Rospigliosi Palace – Paintings in the Vatican – Domenichino’s “St. Jerome” – Raffaelle’s “Coronation of the Virgin”, and “Madonna de Foligno” – “The Transfiguration” – Notes on Raffaelle’s Pictures – Feelings on leaving Rome ................................. p. 103

* Chapter VI

Observations on the Papal Territories – Miserable State of the Country – Its probable Fate
- Two Theories on this Subject -

Civita Vecchia – Travellers and their Couriers – Arrival at Leghorn – Procession of the Holy Sacrament – Railroad to Pisa and Lucca – An American Locomotive – The Sardinian Malleposte – Picturesque Situation of Massa – The Marble Quarries at Carrara – Excellence of the Agriculture, and Garden-like Appearance of the Province – Gulf of Spezzia – Industry of the People – Arrival at Genoa – Beautiful Scenery on the Coast – Savona – St. Remo – Terrible Precipices – Grandeur of the Cliffs above Monaca – View of Nice – Marseilles – Pleasures of Travelling in Southern Europe ...................................... p. 135

* Chapter VII

NOTES ON THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF ITALY

Effects of Climate – The National Character – Influence of Despotism and of the Fine Arts – Pictures and Civilization – The Austrian Government – Its Finances and Soldiery – Observations on the Present State of Lombardy, Venice, Tuscany, the Papal Territory, and Naples – Mr. Gladstone’s Pamphlet – The Last of the Bourbons – Piedmont and Sardinia – Prophecy of Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton – Prosperity of that Kingdom – The Hopes of Italy centred in Turin – Political Opinions of the Italians – Their Choice between Military Tyranny and Republicanism – Instability of the Governments now in Existence – Feelings of the People towards the King of Naples – Spread of Disaffection to the Papacy – Prospects of Protestantism ............................................................................................................................................................ p. 159

* Chapter VIII
NOTES ON THE POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM

The Latitudinarian Party in England – Their Alliance with the Ultramontane Roman Catholics
- Difference between the Agents of the Papacy in Britain and those on the Continent -

Aggressions of the Pope in the Sixteenth Century – Effects of the Catholic Emancipation Act – Prophetic Words of Sir Robert Peel – Examination of the Question regarding the Right of the Roman Pontiff to appoint Bishops to control the Affairs of National Churches, and to exercise Temporal Authority – Real Object of those represented by Cardinal Wiseman – Influence of Popery on Morals and Learning ............................................................................................................................................................ p. 194

* Chapter IX
NOTES ON THE POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM, continued –

Professed Liberality of Papal Agents – Bearings of their Leading Doctrines on Civil Society – The Crusades – Asceticism – Mariolatry – Pilgrimages – Pretended Miracles – Observations on the History and Influence of Auricular Confession – Some Effects produced by the Celibacy of the Clergy – Monasteries and Convents in England – “Persecution a necessary Element of the Romish Church Theory” – The Inquisition – The Conflicts in France – The Huguonots – Closing Remarks ............... p. 220

* Chapter X
NOTES ON THE LAND QUESTION AT HOME AND ABROAD

Importance of this Subject – English Agriculture – Leases – Appearance of Holland – Scotch Farming – The Peasant Properties in France, Flanders, Switzerland, and Tuscany – Observations on the Cultivation of the Soil in Normandy, the Canton of Berne, and the Valley of the Loire – Comfortable Aspect of the Landholders in the Lowland parts of Switzerland – Sismondi’s Opinion – Agricultural Improvements amongst the Mountains – Remarks on the Fields of Styria, Carinthia, the Tyrol, and Piedmont – Colleges Abroad for the Education of Farmers – Conservative Influence of Peasant Properties – The Freehold Land Societies – Tendency of the English Feudal Laws to prevent the Natural Division of the Soil – Disadvantages of Small Estates – Indebtedness of these Properties in France and Canada – They prevent the free Interchange of Industry, increase the number of Idlers in large Towns, and afford no Reserve against an Evil Day – Dangers threatening Britain .............................................................. p. 248

* Chapter XI

NOTES ON THE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE AT HOME AND ABROAD

Ignorance yet prevalent in England – The Common Schools in the United States of America – Statistics of Educational Institutions in Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Denmark, Holland, and France – Mr. Joseph Kay’s Work on this subject – The Evils of Centralization – Functionaries in Germany – Mr. Laing’s Testimony – Observations on Mr. Kay’s Praise of the Landwehr System and of the Amusements popular on the Continent – Effects of the National Instruction in Baden – Objections to the Plan of Education adopted abroad – The Scholars taught rather to be good Subjects than useful Men – Mr. Kay’s peculiar Sentiments regarding Religious Training – The Frères Chrétiens – The Common Schools of Austria – Opinion of Mr. Paget – Unsuitableness of the German System of Instruction to the Circumstances of England .............................................................................................................................................. p. 276


PREFÁCIO

Steamers and railroads have rendered even the most distant countries in Europe so accessible to travellers, that the public generally feel now much less interest in books such as that which, with great diffidence, I venture to commit to the press. Whatever faults of another kind the narrative portions of the work may have, they possess at least the advantage of having been written on the spot. Dr. Johnson once remarked, - "How seldom descriptions correspond with realities; and the reason is, that people do not write them till some time after, and then their imagination has added circumstances". In order to avoid this prevalent error, I omitted no opportunity of recording my impressions at the time, - often, indeed, when writing was by no means an agreeable occupation. I have endeavoured faithfully and accurately to communicate to the reader some idea of the countries which I visited. My narrative may be very imperfect, but it has not been embellished at the expense of truth.

The fact of my not having travelled alone on either occasion, will explain the frequent use of the plural pronoun in the following pages.

My object in adding to the notes of these successive journeys the observations contained in the five last chapters of the second volume, is, to call attention to subjects which a traveller can with special propriety illustrate, and which are of no small importance to us as a people. If my remarks induce any to study the present political condition of Italy, the influence of Roman Catholicism on the nations, or the social institutions of central Europe, I shall feel that the leisure hours of a few winter evenings have not been misemployed. They are intended to be suggestive, not dogmatic; to invite investigation, rather than to support theories.

It has been well said, that "A long journey, like a tall maypole, furnishes a sort of cloakpin on which to hang the furniture of your mind; and whoever sets out upon a tour without furnishing his mind previously with study and useful knowledge, erects a maypole in December, and puts up a very useless cloak-pin". Heartily coinciding with this sentiment, I have varied my journal with discussions which may perchance prove not unacceptable to those more interested in the social state of a people than in scenery and architecture.

Dundee,

February 20, 1852.

Antes da sua chegada a Portugal, o autor tece algumas considerações sobre:
* p. 1 - Influência e efeitos da navegação a vapor;
* pp. 5-6 - O movimento no cais de Southampton no dia 17 de cada mês;
* pp. 6-11 - Os passageiros a bordo do "Pacha".
Comparação: "travelling republic" (a mistura de classes sociais);
* pp. 11-14 - Passagem por: Cabo Ortegal, Ferrol, Corunha, Cabo Finisterra, Vigo, Costa da Galiza,
Barra do Douro.

OBJECTIVOS DA VIAGEM

* p. 6 - "Pleasure - seeking passengers like myself".































CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME


? Chapter I - The Duomo of Milan - St. Ambrose - The Corso in 1844 and in 1851 - Hatred of the People to the Austrians - Treatment of the Soldiers by the Civilians - Politeness of the Italians - Leave for Bologna - The Lombards - Excessive heat - Lodi - Parmesan Cheese - Passports - Cross the po - Piacenza - Frontier of Modena - Reggio - Capital of the Duchy - Escort of Dragoons - The Legations - Insecurity of Travelling - The Quartely Review - Bologna - Its Streets and Leaning Tower - Ascent of the Apennines - Beggars - Scenery on the Summit - Tuscan Custom-house - View of Florence - German Military Government - Appearance, Buildings, and Historical Recollections of the Etrurian Athens pp. 11

? Chapter II - The English in Florence - The Pitti Palace - Its Gallery of Paintings - Guido's "Cleopatra" - Rafaelle's "Leo the Tenth" and "Madonna della Segiola" - Canova's "Venus" - The Boboli Gardens - Galileo's Chamber - The Church of Santa Croce – The Casine – Austrian Horsemanship – Campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore – The Gonfaloniere of Florence – The Laurentian Library – The Loggia – Tower of the Ducal Palace – The Gallery – The Venus de Medici – Americans at the Table d’Hôte – Manners of our Transatlantic Brethren 34

? Chapter III – Feast of St. Ranieri at Pisa – Crowd on the Railway – Agriculture of Tuscany – Sienna – Our Fellow-traveller – The Despotisms of Europe weakening Roman Catholicism – Pass of Radicofani – Volsinium – Montefiascone – Viterbo – Lake of Vico – Solemn Feelings on approaching Rome – Dreariness of the Vicinity – First View of the Eternal City – Different Points from which to enjoy the Prospect of Rome – Bustling Streets – English Handbills – Porta del Popolo – The Pincian Hill – The Janiculum – Fountains – Summit of St. Peter’s – Back Streets of the modern Town – Drainage – Fort St. Angelo – Temple of Vesta – Ruins and Gardens on the Aventine – Palatin and Coelian Hills – Belt of Pleasure Grounds round the City – The Campagna – Its utter Desolation 56

? Chapter IV – Notes on the ruins of Rome – Inundations of the Tiber – Who destroyed the Monuments of ancient Rome? – Rienzi, last of the Tribunes – The City in the Fifteenth Century – Climate of Central Italy –teh Pantheon – Columns of Marcus Aurelius and Trajan – Baths of Titus, of Diocletian, and of Caracalla – The Appian Way – Valley of Egeria – Tomb of Cecilia Metella – The Catacombs – Road to Tivoli – Mons Sacer – The Capitol and Tarpeian Rock – The Forum Romanum – Temple of Jupiter Tonans – Arch of Septimius Severus – The Mamertine Prison – The Coliseum – Arches of Constantine and Titus – The Palatine Mount – Its Ruins and Gardens 82

? Chapter V – Churches of Rome – Basilics of St. Paul, Santa Croce, and Santa Maria Maggiore – Piazza St. Pietro – First Impressions of St. Peter’s – Its colossal Dome – Statuary in the Interior – Canova’s Monument to Clement XIII – Feast of Corpus Domini – Procession of Ecclesiastics – The Monks, Prelates, and Cardinals – Pio Nono – General Gemeau – The Pope’s Benediction from the High Altar of St. Peter’s – English Spectators – Feelings produced by the Ceremony – Procession of the Holy Sacrament in the Square of the Lateran – The Scala Santa – Festival of St. John the Baptist in the Lantern Church – Arrival of the Pope – The Swiss Guards – Pio Nono on his Pontifical Throne – Homage of the Cardinals – The Cistine Chapel – Michael Angelo’s “Last Judgemente” – The Vatican Palace – Raffaelle’s “Loggie” – Genius of that Painter – Pompey’s Stature in the Spada Palace – St. Pietro in Vincoli – Michael Angelo’s “Moses” – Gallery on the Capitol – Domenichino’s “Cumæan Sybil” – “The Bronze Wolf” – “The Dying Gladiator” – Statuary in the Vatican – The “Laocoon” and “Apollo Belvidere” – Guercino’s Pictures – The Three “Ecce Homos” in the Corsini Palace – “The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian” – Guido’s “Beatrice Cenci” – His Fresco of “Aurora” in the Pavilion of the Rospigliosi Palace – Paintings in the Vatican – Domenichino’s “St. Jerome” – Raffaelle’s “Coronation of the Virgin”, and “Madonna de Foligno” – “The Transfiguration” – Notes on Raffaelle’s Pictures – Feelings on leaving Rome 103

? Chapter VI – Observations on the Papal Territories – Miserable State of the Country – Its probable Fate – Two Theories on this Subject – Civita Vecchia – Travellers and their Couriers – Arrival at Leghorn – Procession of the Holy Sacrament – Railroad to Pisa and Lucca – Na American Locomotive – The Sardinian Malleposte – Picturesque Situation os Massa – The Marble Quarries at Carrara – Excellence of the Agriculture, and Garden-like Appearance of the Province – Gulf of Spezzia – Industry of the People – Arrival at Genoa – Beautiful Scenery on the Coast – Savona – St. Remo – Terrible Precipices – Grandeur of the Cliffs above Monaca – View of Nice – Marseilles – Pleasures of Travelling in Southern Europe 135

? Chapter VII – Notes on the political condition of Italy – Effects of Climate – The National Character – Influence of Despotism and of the Fine Arts – Pictures and Civilization – The Austrian Government – Its Finances and Soldiery – Observations on the Present State of Lombardy, Venice, Tuscany, the Papal Territory, and Naples – Mr. Gladstone’s Pamphlet – The Last of the Bourbons – Piedmont and Sardinia – Prophecy of Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton – Prosperity of that Kingdom – The Hopes of Italy centred in Turin – Political Opinions of the Italians – Their Choice between Military Tyranny and Republicanism – Instability of the Governments now in Existence – Feelings of the People towards the King of Naples – Spread of Disaffection to the Papacy – Prospects of Protestantism 159

? Chapter VIII – Notes on the political influence of Roman Catholicism – The Latitudinarian Party in England – Their Alliance with the Ultramontane Roman Catholics – Difference between the Agents of the Papacy in Britain and those on the Continent

Aggressions of the Pope in the Sixteenth Century – Effects of the Catholic Emancipation Act – Prophetic Words of Sir Robert Peel – Examination of the Question regarding the Right of the Roman Pontiff to appoint Bishops to control the Affairs of National Churches, and to exercise Temporal Authority – Real Object of those represented by Cardinal Wiseman – Influence of Popery on Morals and Learning 194

? Chapter IX – Notes on the political influence of Roman Catholicism, continued – Professed Liberality of Papal Agents – Bearings of their Leading Doctrines on Civil Society – The Crusades – Asceticism – Mariolatry – Pilgrimages – Pretended Miracles – Observations on the History and Influence of Auricular Confession – Some Effects produced by the Celibacy of the Clergy – Monasteries and Convents in England – “Persecution a necessary Element of the Romish Church Theory” – The Inquisition – The Conflicts in France – The Huguonots – Closing Remarks 220

? Chapter X – Notes on the land question at home and abroad – Importance of this Subject – English Agriculture – Leases – Appearance of Holland – Scotch Farming – The Peasant Properties in France, Flanders, Switzerland, and Tuscany – Observations on the Cultivation of the Soil in Normandy, the Canton of Berne, and the Valley of the Loire – Comfortable Aspect of the Landholders in the Lowland parts of Switzerland – Sismondi’s Opinion – Agricultural Improvements amongst teh Mountains – Remarks on the Fields of Styria, Carinthia, the Tyrol, and Piedmont – Colleges Abroad for the Education of Farmers – Conservative Influence of Peasant Properties – The Freehold Land Societies – Tendency of the English Feudal Laws to prevent the Natural Division of the Soil – Disadvantages of Small Estates – Indebtedness of these Properties in France and Canada – They prevent the free Interchange of Industry, increase the number of Idlers in large Towns, and afford no Reserve against na Evil Day – Dangers threatening Britain 248

? Chpater XI – Notes on the education of the people at home and abroad – Ignorance yet prevalent in England – The Common Schools in the United States of America – Statistics of Educational Institutions in Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Denmark’s, Holland, and France – Mr. Joseph Kay’s Work on this subject – The Evils of Centralization – Functionaries in Germany – Mr. Laing’s Testimony – Observations on Mr. Kay’s Praise of the Ladwehr System and of teh Amusements popular on the Continent – Effects of the National Instruction in Baden – Objections to the Plan of Education adopted abroad – The Scholars taught rather to be ggod Subjects than useful Men – Mr. Kay’s peculiar Sentiments regarding Religios Training – The Frères Chrétiens – The Common Schools of Austria – Opinion of Mr. Paget – Unsuitableness of the German System of Instruction to the Circumstances of England 276


NOTAS:
Antes da sua chegada a Portugal, o A tece algumas considerações sobre:
* p. 1 - influência e efeitos da navegação a vapor
* pp. 5-6 - O movimento no cais de Southampton no dia 17 de cada mês
* pp. 6-11 - Os passageiros a bordo do "Pacha". Comparação: "travelling republic" (a mistura de classes sociais)
* pp. 11-14 - Passagem por: Calo Ortegal, Ferrol, Corunha, Cabo Finisterra, Vigo, Costa da Galiza, Barra do Douro.

OBJECTIVOS DA VIAGEM - pág. 6: "pleasur - seeking passengers like myself"

 Notas sobre o autor 

BIOGRAFIA

- 1825 - Nasce em Dundee, no seio de famílias comerciantes, a 24 de Julho.
- Teve tempo para viajar pelo estrangeiro e interessou-se por política.
- 1855 - É eleito para o Parlamento pelos distritos de Montrose.
- 1890 - A 10 de Agosto morre em Kincaldrum. Até aqui, e a par da actividade parlamentar, exerce
também a actividade comercial.

 Referência obra 
William Edward Baxter é referido em BRANCO, Bernardes, "Portugal e os Estrangeiros", 1ª ed., Lisboa, Livraria de A. M. Pereira, 1879, Iº vol., n.º 86, pp. 66. / Centro de Estudos Anglo-Portugueses: E.1.1.- 4.

 Bibliografia 
OBRA

- "Impressions of Central and Southern Europe", London, 1850.
- * "The Tagus and the Tiber or Notes of Travel in Portugal, Spain and Italy", London, 1852, 2 vols.
- "America and the Americans", London, 1855.
- "Hints to Thinkers or Lectures for the Times", London, 1860.

N.B. Dados retirados de "The Compact Edition of the Dictionary of National Biography", vol. II, OUP, 1975, p. 2371.

 Palavras-chave 

Agricultura
Generalidades; Campo de cereais; Cevada; Instrumentos agrícolas; Métodos agrícolas; Milho; Pomares; Produtos agrícolas; Restolho; Separação de terras; Trigo; Vale cultivado;

Alimentação
Generalidades; Ovos; Pão;

Alojamento
Hotel do A. em Lisboa; Cadeiras; Camas; Casa do dono de uma adega [região de Torres Vedras]; Despesas de alojamento; Hospedaria em Colares; Hospedaria em Torres Vedras; Hospedarias entre Sintra e Lisboa; Hotel Bragança «Braganza Hotel»; Hoteleiros de Lisboa; Quarto; Quinta de um amigo; Sujidade;

Arte e Monumentos
Aqueduto; Castelo de Montserrat; Castelo de S. Jorge; Castelo dos mouros; Convento da Pena «The la Pena Convent»; Convento de Cortiça; Convento de Mafra; Convento do Carmo; Estátua equestre de [D. José I] «Equestrian statue of King John»; Mosteiro [dos Jerónimos]; Muralha [Sintra]; Palácio [da Ajuda]; Palácio da Pena; Palácio da Vila; Palácio Real de Mafra; Relação; Sé de Lisboa «Cathedral»; Torre de Belém;

Ciência
Barquilha; Estrela polar; Telégrafo;

Classes Sociais
Camponeses; Classes mais baixas; Nobreza;

Clima
Generalidades; Sintra;

Conclusões


Costumes
Bêbedos; Caretas; Caridade; Casas de lotaria; Generalidades; Religião; Demoras; Descida dos penhascos nos arredores de Sintra; Janela; Jogo; Mendigos; Preguiça;

Criminalidade
Bandos de Bandidos; «Landsharks»;

Economia
Comércio; Dinheiro; Exportação; Joalherias; Limões; Lojas; Lojas de cambistas; Lojista; Manufacturas; Mercado; Mercado de Sintra; Mercados de Lisboa; Moinho de vento; Produtos do campo; Prosperidade; Recursos do interior;

Espanhóis
«Badajós»; Costumes; Galegos; Governo; Mantilha «Mantilla»;

Estradas
Aqueduto - Residência de D. Maria (II); Caminho; Generalidades; Lisboa-Belém; Porto «Oporto»; Lisboa-Sintra «Cintra»; Mafra-Sintra «Cintra»;

Estrangeiros - referências
Viajantes (outros);

Família Real
Generalidades;

Fauna
Aves; Bois; Burro; Cabras; Cães; Cavalo; Gatos [Lisboa]; Mula; Parasitas; Porcos;

Flora
Abeto; Acácia; Aloés; Árbuto; Árvores; Bosques [Alentejo]; Feijão verde; Figueira; Flores; Frutos; Gerânio; Hortaliça; Juncos – caniços; Mimosa; Oliveira;

Forças Armadas
Armas; Cavalo; Marinha de guerra; Polícia de Lisboa; Quartel de Mafra;

Fortificações
Fortes das Linhas de Torres Vedras; Forte de S. Vicente «Santa Vicente»;

Franceses
Cidades francesas; Costumes; Governo; M. Durand; Madame de Chevalier; Madame de Pompadour; Madame du Barry; Marechal Junot; Marechal Massena;

Geografia
Alentejo «Alemtejo»; Algarve; Cabo de S. Vicente; Costa da Estremadura; Estremadura; Fronteira Elvas – Badajoz; de Portugal; Monte de Palmela; Oceano Atlântico; Onça; Província do Minho; Rápidos próximos de Abrantes; Região de Colares; Região entre Lisboa e Torres Vedras; Região entre Sintra e Lisboa; Relevo de Torres Vedras; Rio Douro – Barra; Rio Guadiana; Rio Lima; Rio Minho; Rio tejo «Tagus»; Serra de Montejunot «Mont Junta»; Serra de Sintra; Vale; Vento;

Governo
Conselheiros de D. Maria [II]; Corte; Cortes; D. Maria [II]; Eleições; Governantes; Generalidades; Governo constitucional; Oficial da coroa; Oposição; Partidos políticos; Política; Políticos; Projectos de lei;

Guerras Napoleónicas
Batalhas; Convenção de Sintra; Junot; Linhas de Torres Vedras; Wellington; Massena;

Habitação
Casas da região de Torres Vedras; Casas da região entre Lisboa e Torres Vedras; Casas de Lisboa; Casas de Torres Vedras; Casas do campo; Casas do Porto; Mansão [Lisboa]; Palácio da Ajuda; Palácio do Duque de Cadaval; Palácio do Duque de Palmela; Palácio do Marquês de Viana; Palácios de Lisboa; Palácios dos nobres; Propriedade de um particular; Quinta de D. João de Castro; Quintas; Residência de D. Maria [II]; “Villa” do Duque da Terceira;

História de Portugal
Batalha de Ourique; Caminho marítimo para a Índia; Descobrimentos; D. Afonso [I] «Alonzo»;

História de Portugal - Personagens
Duque da Terceira; Duque de Cadaval; Duque de Palmela; D. Fernando II; D. João de Castro; D. Manuel; D. Miguel; D. Maria II; Marquês de Abrantes; Marquês de Marialva; Marquês de Viana; D. Pedro, Duque de Bragança – comemoração da morte; Vasco da Gama;

Ingleses
Autores ingleses mencionados na obra; Mr. Beckford (William); Cemitério dos ingleses; Cocheiro; Cocheiros ingleses; Sir Hew Dalrimple; Esquadrão inglês; Governo; Ingleses em Portugal; Marinheiros; Napier; Oficiais de bordo; Sir Arthur Wellesly; Duque de Wellington;

Itinerário


Jardins
Generalidades; do Palácio da Pena; Sintra; do Palácio Real de Mafra; Passeio público «The public gardens»; Tapada de Mafra «The royal hunting-ground»;

Justiça
Prisões;

Ligações
Vila – Palácio da Pena – Sintra; Sintra – Colares; Sintra – Colares – Montserrat – Sintra; Sintra – Lisboa; Torres Vedras – Mafra;

Lisboa
Fundição do Governo; Generalidades; Mercados; População; Praça de D. Pedro; Rua Augusta; Ruas de Lisboa; Ruas de Lisboa - Barulho; Situação geográfica; Subúrbios de Lisboa; Sujidade; Terreiro do Paço «Black-Horse square»;

Literatura
Biblioteca do Convento de Mafra;

Lutas liberais
Constitucionalistas; Costa Cabral, Conde de Tomar; D. Miguel; Duque da Terceira; Duque de Saldanha; Junta do Porto «Oporto»; Generalidades; “Partido Conservador”; “Partido democrático”; “Partido mais republicano”; “Partido moderador”; Princípios liberais; Protocolo de Londres; Revolução de 1951; Sá da Bandeira; Tumultos de Torres Vedras;

Meios de transporte
Barca «Barge»; Barcos de carreira Gibraltar – Lisboa; Barcos de carreira Southampton – Península; Barcos do Tejo – vapor; Barcos no Tejo; Burros; Cabriolé; Caminho de ferro; Carro de aluguer; Carruagem; Carruagem de quatro cavalos; Cupê «street cab»; Desembarque – barra do Douro; Marinha mercante; Navios no Tejo; Transporte de uvas; Transporte do vinho do Porto; Transportes públicos;

Moeda
Moedas de cobre;

Mulheres
Mulheres da nobreza;

Obras mencionadas pelo autor
Autores mencionados na obra; Childe Harold[‘s Pilgrimage]; Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Last Days of Pompeii; Middle Ages; Natural History of Enthusiasm; Obras mencionadas pelo autor; Ode to Napoleon; Othello; Prólogo ao cato de Addison; School for scandal; Citações por identificar;

Paisagem
do Aqueduto [Lisboa]; Arredores de Colares; Arredores de Torres Vedras; Estremadura – Alentejo; Lisboa; Lisboa antiga; Leste de Lisboa; Linhas de Torres Vedras; Mafra; Mar; Moinhos de vento; Monserrat – Sintra; Palácio da Pena; Região entre Lisboa e Torres Vedras; Sintra;

População
de aldeias na serra de Sintra; de Lisboa; de Sintra; do Algarve; dos subúrbios de Lisboa; Portuguesa;

Porto
Porto «Oporto»; Generalidades;

Portugueses
Generalidades; Rapaz;

Povoações
Abrantes; Aldeias; Belém; Cacilhas; Elvas; Coimbra; Colares; Évora; Mafra; Santarém; Setúbal «St. Ubes»; Sintra «Cintra»; Torres Vedras;

Profissões
Aguadeiros; Almocreves; Cambistas; Cozinheiro – do hotel do autor; Criados – António; Criados; Ferrador; Joalheiros; Porteiros; Postilhão; Varredores de ruas;

Relações Portugal - Inglaterra
Generalidades;

Religião
Bíblia; Campanários das igrejas do Porto; Catolicismo; Cemitério [Lisboa]; Convento da Cortiça; Convento da Pena; Convento de Mafra; Convento do Carmo; Convento na região de Torres Vedras; Conventos; Devoção; História da Igreja; Igreja da Estrela; Igreja de S. Vicente «Santa Vicente»; Igreja em Sintra; Igrejas; Igrejas paroquiais; Monges; Mosteiro dos Jerónimos; Mosteiros; Ordens religiosas; Ordens religiosas - extinção; Padres; Sé de Lisboa;

Ruas
de Torres Vedras;

Saúde
Classes mais baixas; Febre; Hospital da marinha;

Teatros
Teatro D. Maria II;

Termos não traduzidos


Terramoto de 1755
Generalidades;

Vestuário
Artilharia; Capote; Exército; Regimentsof the line; das donzelas; das mulheres; das senhoras de Lisboa; do povo; dos Postilhões;

Vinicultura
Adega; Caldeiras do vinho; Latada; Pipas; Prensas; Produção por ano; Uvas; Uvas – transporte; Vinhas; Vinho branco velho; Vinho da colheita anterior; Vinho de boa qualidade; Vinho de Colares; Vinho do Porto – transporte; Vinho novo; Vinho palheto;

 

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