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Viajantes Anglófonos em Portugal - Séculos XVIII e XIX

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ALEXANDER, James Edward
Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834

Inglaterra, 1835
Londres
Língua: Inglês

 Traduções:  Skizzen aus Portugal während des Bürger-Krieges in Jahre 1834, Alemanha, 1836

 Edição 
Endereço do editor:Waterloo Place
Local de edição:Londres
Nome do editor:James Cochrane and Co.
Notas:"The National Union Catalog" aponta para a existência, em Londres, de uma 2ª edição de 1855.
 Notas e informações 
Obras_criticas: OBRA CRÍTICA

Em "The Athenaeum", 22 de Setembro de 1830, p. 614, Alexander é criticado pela superficialidade da informação transmitida em "Travels to the Seat of War", especialmente pela ausência de suficientes dados de carácter militar, dado o que seria de prever numa obra dessa natureza.
A 25 de Março de 1833, a mesma revista, na p. 273, diz, a propósito de "Transatlantic Sketches": "We never felt more perplexed than in considering how we should characterize these two pleasant, desultory, gossiping, galloping volumes. Capt. Alexander is known to our readers by a former work, in which there was evidence enough of a post-horse speed; but there is an account of sixteen thousand miles travelled over in a twelvemonth!".
Em relação a "Sketches in Portugal", "The Athenaeum" a 27 de Dezembro de 1834 volta a criticar a rapidez da viagem, concluindo na p. 932: "It is not to be expected (...) that the work should be either very elaborate, very learned, or very informing; but the Captain is a shrewd observer of all that lies on the surface, and he is never dull".
A "Literary Gazette" em Janeiro de 1834 faz sua a opinião do jornal "The Spectator" e diz-nos, a propósito de "Transatlantic Sketches", na p. 32: "The author is a well-known traveller in the East; his present book is, however, far more interesting than either his travels in Asia, Persia or Turkey, it is a most amusing publication.", transcrevendo no mês seguinte um novo comentário sobre a mesma obra, do "Atlas", na p. 128: "One of the best travelling books we have seen. A book of sights, of picturesque description, and abounding in anecdotes of all imaginable kinds". "Narrative of a Voyage of Observation Among the Colonies of Western Africa" e "An Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa" são também apresentadas na mesma revista a 18 de Agosto de 1838, nas pp. 514-516 (bem como em "The Athenaeum" a 20 de Maio de 1837, nas pp. 317-318). Assim também, "Sketches in Portugal": "Sketches should be slight, desultory, characteristics and pleasant reading; and such is this volume, "The Literary Gazette", 27 de Dezembro de 1834, p. 858, continuando na p. 859 o mesmo crítico: "But, after all (for we abjure the fights, propects, politics, tariffs, loans, etc., etc.) the chief end of Capt. Alexander's mission is the point of most interest [...]", sendo esse o tocante à missão para a Royal Geographical Society, concluindo em tom de desculpa "Still, he is an unassuming and a pleasant fellow, fearless of peril, and animated with the best spirit" (p. 859).
"The Spectator", ainda acerca de "Sketches in Portugal", apesar de reconhecer a falta de originalidade dos episódios narrados, diz-nos "Captain Alexander's Sketches are [...] pleasant, and even useful. His style and manner are brisk and rattling; and he makes himself at home with the reader in the off-hand way of an old traveller and compaigner. He carried, too, into the more serious scenes, greater knowledge and experience them the gentleman of the press; he had probably better introductions, and certainly better opportunities of observation. The book, moreover, is not a series of detached bits of intelligence, but conveys the impression of a whole view", 1834, vol. 7, p. 932.
 Referência 
Cota:A 10 H.G. 5679 V. e H.G. 18661 V.
 Autor 
Autor:ALEXANDER, James Edward
Elementos identificação:K. L. S. Capitão do 42º Royal Highlanders, Tenente-Coronel ao serviço de Portugal

 Notas gerais 

DEDICATÓRIA

"To Major-General Sir Nicholas Trant, K.T.S. late governor of Oporto, & c. & c. & c. to whom the author is deeply indebted for promoting the object of his visit to Portugal, this work is most respectfully dedicated".

PREFÁCIO

"A passage to the Cape having been offered to Captain Alexander, on board H.M.S. Thalia, he embarked in September last.
Having received only a few days' notice, he was prevented from finishing his Sketches in the manner he had wished, and was under the necessity of requesting another to take charge of them through the press. Having likewise expressed a desire that his intention of adding some 'Observations upon the present State and future Prospects of Portugal', might still be fulfilled, this has been attempted; and the writer can only hope that his remarks may not be found altogether uninteresting.

London,
November, 1834."

INTRODUÇÃO

O autor informa-nos de um convite para levar a cabo uma expedição. Convite esse proposto pela Royal Geographical Society, com o fim de explorar e comunicar acerca de determinadas regiões do Sudeste de África. Para tal, o autor dirigiu-se ao governo português para obter licença para visitar as colónias portuguesas em África. Durante a sua estada em Portugal procurou registar não só factos de carácter político-social como nos deixou "numerous original anecdotes". Informa-nos afinal não só das suas intenções pedagógicas promovidas pelo apoio governamental como do seu próprio entusiasmo que tenciona comunicar ao leitor "some entertainment will be obtained".

NOTAS

- O autor faz, no Cap. IV, uma nota na p. 103 acerca do hábito dos ingleses de alterarem nomes estrangeiros, neste caso "Wiederhold into 'Thunderbolt'".
- Encontra-se outra nota no cap. IX, p. 217, em que o autor nos diz que se pode dormir em segurança, praticamente em qualquer lado, desde que se ponha uma gaze sobre a face "it prevents the miasma from being injurious".

APÊNDICE

Informações oficiais e de fontes várias apresentadas pelo autor, com o objectivo de ilustrar as transacções comerciais efectuadas entre Portugal e Inglaterra.
Introduz o "Manifesto of the Portuguese Nation to the Governments and the People of Europe in 1820" com o fim de dignificar o povo português.

POSTSCRIPT

O autor vê do interesse do leitor saber como a Rainha D. Maria recompensou os estrangeiros empenhados na defesa dos direitos de Portugal. Como tal, apresenta uma série de factos que, crê, serem conclusivos em si.
______
As it may be interesting to those who have read the preceding Sketches, to know how the Queen has rewarded the foreigners who have so profusely shed their blood in support of her rights, and have been mainly instrumental in achieving the triumph of the cause they engaged in, we state the following facts, which we believe may be relied upon.
Pensions, or a proportionate sum of money, have been awarded to the wounded, and to the relatives of those killed in the service.
All on board the fleet have been remunerated most liberally.
Every officer, (even many whose services have not extended beyond the Cafés of Lisbon), with the exception of the commander of the Scotch Fuzileers, has received his pay and promised gratuity.
As the only regimental officers, we might almost say men, now surviving, who accompanied the gallant Hodges in 1831, are Colonel Shaw, Major Mitchell, and Mr. Alcock, this must appear strange, and arises, as we shall show, from conduct on the part of those in power both ungenerous and impolitic.
Some months ago, the contract with the Fuzileers expired, and they were consequently no longer bound to act as soldiers, nor to submit to military control. Of this they were well aware, and nothing has hitherto kept them in a state of order and discipline, but the consciousness of their Colonel's unceasing endeavours to see justice done to them, and the knowledge of his resolution to refuse all recompense to himself, until every farthing due to them has been discharged.
We have no doubt that all will yet be paid, and we conceive that no one, fairly considering the difficulties under which the Portuguese have laboured, can deny to them the highest praise for the honourable manner in which they have paid their debts; it is therefore deeply to be regretted, that by their procrastinating conduct in the present instance, they have offered their enemies so just a title to tax them with ingratitude to some of their bravest supporters.

15th Dec. 1834.

ADVERTISEMENT

In sending forth to the Public the following Journal and Narrative, the object of the Author is to exhibit the state of affairs in the Peninsula, just as they fell under his observations; leaving to diplomatists the task of demonstrating the effects of the late political events.
The present volume is derived from a diary written on the spot, the author intending to revise and enlarge it; but other duties have fully occupied him, and it is therefore sent forth in its original simple guise.

DIVISÃO DA OBRA

- Capítulos; sumário.

* Chapter I
Leave London for Falmouth - A roving Blade - Embark in the Charybdis brig of war - A wet Sea-boat - Stiff Breezes - The shores of Spain - Enter the harbour of Vigo - Town and People - Fall in with a Frigate - News of the War - An Accident - Sail up the Tagus - View of Lisbon - A whited Sepulchre - Prisoners of War - Mutineers - Lisbon Hotels - A Sége - Deliver Letters to Great People - Effects of capture of Miguelite Fleet - Corporal Knight - Hospitality - Dreary Streets - Agua vai - A Spate - Assassination of an Officer ................................................................................................................. p. 1

* Chapter II
Walk through Lisbon - Reign of Terror - Espionage - Change of Times - Dress of the People - Beggars - Goats - Shops - Indolent Shopkeepers - The Clergy - Galegos - Carriages - A Caza de Pasto - English Mistakes - Ride to the Aqueduct of Alcantara - The Lines of Lisbon - Anecdote of Don Pedro - Scene of a Skirmish - The old Woman and the Grape-shot - Why Don Miguel continued the War - Visit the grand Opera House of San Carlos – A pleasant Pit – The Imperial Family .................................................... p. 31

* Chapter III
The Fish Maket (sic) – Praça do Commercio – Custom-house – Bacalhao Street – Corn Market – Washerwomen – Vicente de Fora – Graça – Monte – Castle of St. George – Praça des Figueras – College of Jesuits – Mosaics of St. Roque – Preparations for Chaunting – Washing the feet of Beggars – Nunneries – Extraordinary Mortifications – Life in a Convent – Taking the Veil – Doing Penance – Suppression of Religious Houses – Confessions of a Friar – Travellers see strange Sights – Cruel Sport – Palace of Adjuta – Museum – Convent of St. Jeronymo – King Death ............................................. p. 57

* Chapter IV
Determine to visit the Seat of War - When an Officer may be shot – Leave Lisbon with a Companion – He plays the Author a Trick – Jack-a-Lantern – A Muleteer - Effects of War on Country–houses – Peasants – Their Civility to Strangers – The Country – Sagavem – Villa Franca – Style of Architecture and People – A Tiffin – A Proper Man – Lines of Torres Vedras – Villa Nova – Sick and Wounded – Playing at Soldiers – Arrive at Cartaxo – Industrious Fleas – Anecdote – Field Breakfast – Grievances of Lancers – Field Marshal Count Saldanha – Position of Donna Maria’s Army – Santarem .................. p. 83

* Chapter V
Colonel Shaw – Commissariat – Dr. J. R. Alcock – Officers in the Field – Peasant’s House – Moveables and Immoveables – Quarters at Val de Santarem – Scotch Fuzileers – Sentiments of a Soldier – Rations and Pay – Strength of Donna Maria’s Army – Don Miguel and his Troops – A Review – Brigadier–General Bacon – The Cavalry – Caçadores – The Line – Distinction of Rank – Volunteers – Belgians – French – Artillery – British Grenadiers and Queen’s Irish – Chiefs of Saldanha’s Army – Conference between the English Envoy and the Miguelite Commander-in-Chief – The Terms offered to Miguel ...................... p. 109

* Chapter VI
Don Miguel determines to force his Way to Lisbon – Army at Santarem reinforced – Saldanha’s Position – Lemos marches to attack it – Battle of Almoster commences at the Bridges Celleiro and Asseca – Dispositions of Saldanha – Movement of the Right Wing of Lemos – Saldanha’s Generalship – The Battle–field described – The Miguelites gain the Heights of Santa Maria – Are repulsed – Dreadful Slaughter – The Left Wing of Lemos also beaten – Cavalry Charge – Why the Enemy’s Artillery was not captured - Amount of Loss - The Field after the Action – The British Officers who served with Donna Maria’s Army – Their Grievances – Will be redressed by Don Pedro and the Government ............. p. 132

* Chapter VII
The Emperor arrives at Cartaxo – An unexpected Salute – Author is presented to Don Pedro – Colonel Wylde, R. A. – Outpost Scenes – Character of Miguelites – Memorandum – A Field-day of the Scotch Fuzileers – The Belgian March – A Soldier "malgré lui" - Liberating Pickpockets – A grand Entertainment at the Field Marshal’s – A Highland Juggler – A Portuguese Dalgetty – Tables of Russian and Portuguese Commanders compared – Veterans versus Fair Sex – A Skirmish with the Enemy ........................ p. 153

* Chapter VIII
Leave Cartaxo for Lisbon – The Author is flea’d again – Anecdote – Beautiful Prospect – Viscount Cape St. Vincent – The Naval Arsenal – The Admiral described – His Excellency’s Northern Expedition – Takes Caminha, Valença, Viana – Dine with the Admiral – He is made a Count – Fleet of the Queen – Prospects of Prize–money – Admiral Sartorius – Brilliant Action of the 5th of July, 1833 – A Naval Speech – Cholera – Judicious Conduct of Admiral Napier – Expedition to Algarve – Curious Escape of a Prisoner – The British Squadron – More Murders – Political Assassinations – Summary Justice on four Guerillas – Revenge – Pleasure Parties and Quintas – Evening Parties at Lisbon – Grand Ball at the Most Illustrious and Excellent Senhor Sebastian Botelho’s ........................................................................................ p. 171

* Chapter IX
Ministers of Donna Maria – Equalise the Duties on Imports – Effects on English Commerce – English Goods – Smuggling – Portuguese Manufactures – Machines – Commercial Regulations – Inland Communications – Agriculture – Prohibited Articles – Mines – Fisheries – Education – Hospitals – Prisons – Wages – Health – Literature – Colonies – Slave-trade – M. Sarmento – Falhinha – Cause of Mortality on Coasts of Africa – An Anecdote – Contract with British Troops – Proposals for a Land Company ............................................................................................................................................................ p. 201

* Chapter X
Leave Lisbon to visit Cintra and Mafra – A Razor-back – A beautiful Picture – Palace of Sitiaes – Sweets of Solitude – Montserrat – The Cork Convent – A Mendicant Friar – A Muleteer’s Refreshment – The Penha Convent – Moorish Castle – Conical Chambers – A superb View – Old Palace of Cintra – Ride to Mafra – The Church, Garden, Clock, and Bells – Return to Lisbon - Portuguese Baptisms, Marriages, and Funerals – Sir John Milley Doyle and Brigadier-General Bacon – Pleasures of attending Levees – Patience rewarded – Post-office Abuses – Embark in a Steamer for England ................................ p. 223

* Chapter XI
Sail from Lisbon – Stormy Seas-Put into Cascaes – Dangerous Situation – The Bar of Oporto – The Douro – Oporto and Villa Nova – Scene of a severe Skirmish – Walk through the City – Symptoms of a Siege – Dry Food and strict Neutrality – Town’s–people – Their Sufferings - Man’s-meat – Boys and Bullocks – Churches – Serra Convent – Bomb-shells and Batteries – A Landscape – Ride round the Lines – Lordello – The Scotch again! – Dog’s-meat – Sail from Oporto – Nearly foundered in the Bay of Biscay – Put back for Corunna – Put into Brest – The Town and Dock-yard – Miseries of a King’s Messenger – Arrive at Plymouth ....................................................................................................... p. 250

* Chapter XII
On the present State and future Prospects of Portugal .................................................................... p. 273

 Notas sobre o autor 

BIOGRAFIA

Nascido em 1803, filho primogénito de Edward Alexander of Powis. Educado no Royal Military College, em Sandhurst, segue a carreira militar. Participa na Guerra Russo-Turca com o posto de Tenente, onde é condecorado com a ordem de Crescente. Começa, porém, por tomar parte na primeira Guerra de Burma 1824-26. Envolve-se nos conflitos entre a Pérsia e a Rússia em 1826, na sequência do que será condecorado com a Ordem do Leão e do Sol. Durante a sua estada na África do Sul participa, também, na Guerra dos Cafres em 1835. Entretanto, e para além da sua faceta de militar, o seu espírito de geógrafo havia-lo trazido a Portugal em 1834.
Efectua uma expedição à região dos Namáguas em 1836-38, no seguimento da qual será feito cavaleiro em 1838. Em 1841 parte para o Canadá, onde mantém as suas actividades de geógrafo e militar por 14 anos. Em 1855 participa na Guerra da Crimeia onde é condecorado e em 1860-62 combate na Nova Zelândia na Guerra Maoui.
A sua curiosidade e ânsia de saber levá-lo-ão ainda até Alexandria, em 1875, onde terá um papel decisivo no embarque para a Inglaterra do obelisco "Cleopatra's Needle".
Virá a morrer na Ilha de Wight em 2 de Abril de 1885.

 Bibliografia 
OBRAS DE ALEXANDER (ou prefaciadas pelo autor)

I' TISAM AL-DIN, Mirza, "Shigurf Namah I Velaët, or Excellent Intelligence Concerning Europe: Being the Travels of Mirza Itesa Modeen in Great Britain and France". Translated from the original Persian manuscript into Hindoostane, with an English Version and Notes by James Edward Alexander, London, Parbury, Allen, and Co., 1827.

"Travels from India to England, Comprehending a Visit to the Burman Empire, and a Journey through Persia, Asia Minor, European Turkey, etc., in the Years 1825-26", London, Parbury, Allen, and Co., 1827.

"Notice of a Visit to the Cavern Temples of Adjunta, in the East-Indies", Communicated by Lieut. James Edward Alexander, 16th Lancers, of the Order of the Lion and the Sun, M.R.A.S., Cor. Mem. S.A.E., etc., London, Printed by J. L. Cox, 1829.

"Travels to the Seat of War in the East, through Russia and the Grimea, in 1829. With Sketches of the Imperial Fleet and Army, Personal Adventures and Characteristic Anecdotes", 2 Vols., London, Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1830.

"Transatlantic Sketches Comprising Visits to the Most Interesting Scenes in North and South America and the West Indies. With Notes on Negro Slavery and Canadian Emigration", 2 Vols., London, Richard Bentley, 1833.

"Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834. With Observations on the Present State and Future Prospects of Portugal", London, James Cochrane and Co., 1835.
- Há duas outras edições publicadas em Filadélfia, uma no mesmo ano, e a outra em 1835.

"Francis Abbot, the Recluse of Niagara: and Metropolitan Sketches", 2nd series. By James Bird, London, Baldwin and Cradock, 1938.
- Existe ainda uma outra edição publicada em Filadélfia em 1855.

"Narrative of a Voyage of Observation Among the Colonies of Western Africa, in the Flag-ship Thalia; and of a Campaign in Kaffir-Land, on the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in 1835", 2 Vols., London, Henry Colburn, 1838.
- Há uma 2ª edição publicada em Filadélfia por E. L. Larey e A. Hart em 1838.

"The Life of Field Marshall, His Grace the Duke of Wellington. Embracing his Civil, Military, and Political Career to the Present Time", 2 Vols., London, Henry Colburn, 1840.
- Há uma tradução alemã: Friedrich Bauer, "Leben und Feldzüge des Herzogs von Wellington", 2 Vols., Quendinburg und Leipzig, 1840.

"The Burning of the St. Louis Theatre, Quebec. A Record of the Eminent Services of the Military", Quebec, 1846.

"L'Acadie; or Seven Years Explorations in British America", 2 Vols., London, Henry Colburn, 1849.

BONNYCASTLE, R. H., Sir, "Canada, as it was, and may be, with Considerable Additions, and an Account of Recent Transactions by Sir James Edward Alexander, 2 Vols., London, Colburn & Co., Publishers, 1852.

"Temperance in the lamp". A lecture delivered on the Heights of Sebastopol, Christmas, 1855, London, William Tweedie, 1856.

"Passages in the Life of a Soldier, or, Military Service in the East and West", 2 Vols., London, Hurst and Blackett, Publishers, Successors to Henry Colburn, 1857.

"Military Examinations for Junior Officers of Infantry, Comprising Discipline, Dull, Interior Economy, Field Fortification, Reconnoitering, etc.", prepared by direction of Colonel Sir James Edward Alexander, K.N.T., K.C.L.S., 14th Regiment, 2nd Edition, 1860.

"Salmon - Fishing in Canada: by a Resident", London, Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860.

"Incidents of the Maori War. New Zealand in 1860-61", London, Richard Bentley, 1863.

"An Account of the Embalmed Head of Oliver Cromwell at Shortlands House", Kent, Glasgow, 1870.

"Bush-Fighting. Illustrated by Remarkable Actions and Incidents of the Maori War in New Zealand", London, Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1873.

"Notes on the Maoris of New Zealand, with Suggestion for their Pacification and Preservation", by Colonel Sir James Edward Alexander, K.C.L.S., F.R.G.S. and R.A.S., s.l., s. ed., s.d.

"Cleopatra's Needle. The Obelisk of Alexandria. It's Acquisition and Removal to England. Described", London, Chatto & Windus, 1879.
MateriaisO ficheiro manual possui fotocópias reduzidas de: capa de "Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834"; appendix; appendix - Table 1 - General exports from Britain / Table II - Cotton manufactures exported from Britain / Table III - Declared value of British, colonial, and foreign produce exported from Britain / Table IV - Amount of British Imports and Exports / Table V - Annual consumption of all wines from 1781 to 1833 / Note to Table V; appendix: MANIFESTE - De la Nation Portugaise aux Souverains, et aux peuples de l'Europe, 1820; appendix: FINANCIAL STATEMENT; appendix: PROJECT; Postcript; "A Journal kept in Spain and Portugal, during the years 1832, 1833 & 1834"

 Palavras-chave 

Agricultura
Cartaxo; Espanha; Vale do Tejo;

Alimentação
casas de pasto; gorduras;

Alojamento
Aposentos do Coronel Shaw; Casas de família; Hospedarias;

Arte e Monumentos
Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Graça; Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Monte; Igreja de S. Roque; Igreja de S. Vicente de Fora; Mosteiro dos Jerónimos;

Classes Sociais
Camponesas; Camponeses; Carácter dos camponeses; Clero; Criados; Pedintes; Pescadores;

Conclusões


Costumes
Água fresca; Água-vai; Caça; Casamentos; Festas; Funerais; Jogo; Refeição matinal;

Criminalidade
Assassínios; Assassinos; Linchamento; Prisões;

Economia
Agricultura; Comerciantes; Comerciantes ingleses; Contrabando; Importações; Impostos; Lojas; Manufacturas; Maquinaria; Minas; Olaria real; Pesca; Preços; Salários;

Ensino
Alfabetização das crianças; Escolas;

Espanhóis
Galegos; Militares; Raparigas da Galiza; Regiões; Señores; Señoras;

Família Real
Costumes; Residência;

Forças Armadas
Arsenal de Marinha; Artilharia; Combatentes; Comemorações; Comportamento; Contrato sob o qual as tropas britânicas serviam em Portugal; Defesa; Exercícios; Fragatas ingleses; Frota Naval de D. Maria II; Fuzileiros escoceses; Lanceiros ingleses; Legião portuguesa; Oficiais; Quartel-General; Rações; Regimentos; Salários;

Franceses
Brest; Brest;

Geografia
Rios; Rio Douro;

Governo
Espiões e informadores; Ministérios de D. Maria; Política;

Habitação
Casas (de Vigo); Casas no campo; Quintas; Casas [Vila Franca];

História de Portugal - Personagens
D. Amélia de Beaucharnois; Conde Saldanha; Duque da Terceira, Conde de Vila Flor; D. Maria II; M. Sarmento; D. Pedro IV;

Ingleses
Almirante Sartorius; General-Brigadeiro Bacon; Almirante Napier; Visconde Charles Napier; Tenente – Coronel Charles Shaw;

Itinerário


Jardins
das quintas; Jardins públicos;

Lisboa
Costumes; Esgotos; Generalidades; Mercados; Palácio da Ajuda; Perigos; Praça da Figueira; Praça do Comércio; Praça do Rossio; Ruas;

Literatura
Bibliotecas; Manuscritos; Publicações nacionais; Traduções;

Lutas liberais
Atitudes; Batalha de Almoster; Baterias no Douro; Causa de D. Miguel; Consequências; Desertores; Lutas; Medidas; Porto; Posições militares; Prisioneiros de guerra;

Meios de transporte
Carruagens; Séges;

Mulheres
Espanholas; Lavadeiras; Senhoras portuguesas;

Ópera
de Rossini; S. Carlos;

Paisagem
Baía de Cascais; Castelo dos Mouros; Vista do Castelod os Mouros; Lisboa; Monserrate; Palácio de Seteais; Sacavém; Sintra; Tejo; Vale de Santarém; Vale do Tejo;

Porto
Generalidades;

Portugueses
Carácter;

Povoações
Cartaxo; Santarém; Vila Nova;

Relações Portugal - Inglaterra
Colónias; Comércio; Economia;

Religião
Abolição das casas religiosas; Baptismos; Colégio dos Jesuítas; Convento da Penha; Convento da Serra; Convento de Mafra; Convento dos Capuchos; Conventos; Conventos de freiras; Freiras; Jesuítas; Lava-pés; Penitências;

Saúde
Cólera; Estado geral da saúde; Hospitais; Juntas de saúde;

Termos não traduzidos


Vestuário
Classes; Galegos;

 

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